Best Poster Awards – The Identity and Evolution of Cell Types

The second edition of the EMBO | EMBL Symposium: The Identity and Evolution of Cell Types brought together an increased number of researchers from this growing community. 315 scientists joined the virtual meeting and enjoyed four days of talks and poster presentations streamed live. A total of 72 posters were presented at the two live poster sessions out of which three were selected as the best posters by popular vote. Take a look at the winners and their work.

Molecular fingerprinting sea anemones and jellyfish: A transcriptomic approach to characterize Cnidarian cell types
image of Alison Cole
Alison Cole, University of Vienna, Austria

Presenter: Alison Cole, University of Vienna, Austria

Abstract

Animals typically consist of hundreds of different cell types, yet the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the emergence of new cell types are unclear. Cnidarians offer advantages to studies of metazoan cell type evolution, as they are the sister group to the Bilateria and yet comprise an extremely diverse set of lineages that exhibit variable life history strategies, life spans, regenerative properties, animal-defining cell types (ie. muscles and neurons), as well as clade-specific cell types (i.e. cnidocytes). Advances in single cell RNA sequencing have opened the frontiers for molecular profiling of cell types at a genome-wide scale. Application of these technologies for comparisons across species remains in its infancy, and is largely, but not exclusively, restricted to closely related species with well-defined orthologous gene sets. Here we present a large single cell dataset derived from the anthozoan polyp Nematostella vectensis (comprising both developmental and tissue-derived samples),the scyphozoan moon jelly (Aurelia aurita; comprising all life history stages as well as medusa tissue-derived samples), and the hydrozoan Clytia hemispherica (young medusa only). The same cell complement that is identifiable from species-specific genome-wide analyses is recoverable using only a set of 1:1:1 orthologous genes in all three species. Analyses of the reduced gene matrix combining all three species robustly identifies putatively homologous cell types amongst the neurosecretory derivatives, as well as cell populations with clear species-specific transcriptomic profiles. Interpretations of these data in the light of specific cell types will be discussedin order to demonstrate that the combination of unbiased single cell transcriptomes and gene-directed validations can permit the identification of novel and conserved cell types.

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Stylophora pistillata cell atlas illuminates stony coral symbiosis, calcification and immunity
Anamaria Elek, Centre for Genomic Regulation, Spain

Presenter: Anamaria Elek, Centre for Genomic Regulation, Spain

Abstract

Stony corals are colonial cnidarians that sustain the most biodiverse marine ecosystems on Earth: coral reefs. Life cycle of these animals involves a swimming larva that settles and metamorphoses into a sessile polyp, which in turn develops into the adult stage, depositing in the process a protein rich organic matrix and extracellular calcium carbonate crystals to form a stony skeleton. Despite their ecological importance, little is known about the cell types and molecular pathways that underpin the biology of reef-building corals. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we have defined over 40 cell types across the three life stages of a stony coral Stylophora pistillata. Among others, we characterized previously unknown coral immune cells, endosymbiont alga-hosting cells, and calicoblasts responsible for calcium-carbonate skeleton formation in both settling polyp and the adult coral. Apart from these specialized coral cell types, we identified evolutionary conserved cell types by phylogenetic integration of our S. pistillata cell atlas with three other available cnidarian species. These evolutionary conservations include neuronal and gland cell types, cnidaria-specific cnidocytes, and others. Overall, this study reveals the molecular and cellular basis of stony coral biology, and addresses the evolution of cell type programs in three major cnidarian lineages separated by 500 million years of evolution.

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Gene family evolution underlies cell type diversification in the hypothalamus of teleosts*
Maxwell Shafer, Biozentrum, University of Basel, Switzerland

Presenter: Maxwell ShaferBiozentrum, University of Basel, Switzerland

Abstract

Hundreds of cell types form the vertebrate brain, but it is largely unknown how similar these cellular repertoires are between or within species, or how cell type diversity evolves. To examine cell type diversity across and within species, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing of ~130,000 hypothalamic cells from zebrafish (Danio rerio) and surface- and cave-morphs of Mexican tetra (Astyanax mexicanus). We found that over 75% of cell types were shared between zebrafish and Mexican tetra, which last shared a common ancestor over 150 million years ago. Orthologous cell types displayed differential paralogue expression that was generated by sub-functionalization after genome duplication. Expression of terminal effector genes, such as neuropeptides, was more conserved than the expression of their associated transcriptional regulators. Species-specific cell types were enriched for the expression of species-specific genes, and characterized by the neo-functionalization of members of recently expanded or contracted gene families. Within species comparisons revealed differences in immune repertoires and transcriptional changes in neuropeptidergic cell types associated with genomic differences between surface- and cave-morphs. The single-cell atlases presented here are a powerful resource to explore hypothalamic cell types, and reveal how gene family evolution and the neo- and sub-functionalization of paralogs contribute to cellular diversity.

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*https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.13.414557 


Working on your own conference poster? Then check out these 8 tips for preparing a digital poster that stands out from the crowd.

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Best Poster and Artwork Awards — VIZBI 2021: Visualizing Biological Data

The 11th international meeting on Visualizing Biological Data, best known as VIZBI, was held virtually this year. The conference was as exciting as always, filled with great discussions, an outstanding speaker line-up and of course amazing, beautiful visuals.

The participants had the chance to vote for their favourite scientific poster and artwork — a very tough choice as all of the works were truly amazing! Here, we present you the winners.

Best scientific poster

Building a whole cell in 3D

by  Martina Maritan (The Scripps Research Institute, USA) Ludovic Autin, Jonathan Karr, Markus Covert, Arthur Olson, David Goodsell.

Martina Maritan, The Scripps Research Institute, USA
Martina Maritan

Mesoscale 3D models are powerful tools for exploring structural data across the entire range of scales, from the molecular to the cellular level. We built structural mesoscale models of a whole Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) cell with the CellPACK suite using data generated from a whole-cell MG simulation. 3D models integrate structural details into a computational model of MG, highlighting specific properties of the ingredients, and creating snapshots of the cell at defined time points of the simulations. Our modeling process goes through three steps. Firstly, we assemble a recipe: a list of all the proteins of Mycoplasma associated with a structural representation. Secondly, we create a model of the genome with DNA, RNA, RNA polymerase, mRNA, and ribosomes, with user-defined location of RNA polymerase and length of transcripts. Thirdly, we assemble the nucleoid, soluble, and membrane ingredients, and relax the whole system to resolve steric overlaps. The result is a framework for interactive construction of atomic resolution mesoscale models describing a spatial view of a whole bacterial cell. Our models are the first atomistic representation of an entire bacterial cell.

Building a whole cell in 3D
Building a whole cell in 3D

View Martina Maritan’s poster
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Second best scientific poster

How to communicate cell behaviours visually

by Christian StolteCellarity, USA.

Christian Stolte, Cellarity, USA
Christian Stolte

Cellarity is pioneering a new approach to drug discovery, treating disease at the level of the cell as opposed to a single molecular target. Combining unique expertise in network biology, high-resolution single-cell sequencing data, and machine learning, the result is a new understanding of the cell’s trajectory from health to disease, and how cells relate to one another in tissues. The cell and its network of transcripts and proteins offer a more complete view of the complexity of human biology than any individual molecular target. To help communicate this, we use visualizations resembling a cityscape called ‘Cellarity maps’. Based on the UMAP dimensionality reduction technique, they use the third dimension (height) to show density. This creates landscapes where we can now use colour to encode additional dimensions, and make it easier to see different ‘cell behaviours.’

How to communicate cell behaviours visually
How to communicate cell behaviours visually

View Christian Stolte’s poster
Watch lighting talk

Best artwork

10 Hallmarks of cancer

by Karolína Kryštofová, Institute of Biophysics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic.

Karolína Kryštofová, Institute of Biophysics of the Czech Academy of Sciences Czech Republic
Karolína Kryštofová

A whimsical series of illustrations inspired by the hallmarks of cancer as described by Weinberg & Hanahan in their paper Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation (2011).

10 Hallmarks of cancer
10 Hallmarks of cancer

View Karolína Kryštofová’s artwork

Second best artwork

The human heart

by Philipp Dexheimer, Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Austria.

Philipp Dexheimer, Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Austria
Philipp Dexheimer

Inspired by Leonardo Da Vinci’s original way of depicting his science and ideas, this digital painting illustrates the 21st century research process to understand formation of such a delicate organ as the human heart. Cells are derived, self-organize into 3-dimensional organoid structures, and allow unique insight into heart development and physiology. Illustrating research described in: Hofbauer et al., BioRxiv, 2020 – Cardioids reveal self-organizing principles of human cardiogenesis.

The human heart

View Philipp Dexheimer’s artwork

If you’d like to take a look at all of the posters presented at VIZBI 2021, you can! Visit the poster gallery, dive into the science, enjoy the beautiful images and be amazed by the scientists’ visualization skills.

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Why virtual sponsorship is valuable

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, most events have been hosted entirely virtually. Companies looking to achieve their marketing objectives by means of events sponsorship have now been faced with the question of whether or not to invest in virtual events.

Virtual Booth Image

The major challenge that we have observed is that many companies expect the same outcome from their virtual event sponsorship as from an in-person meeting. We often hear that while in-person conferences offer possibilities for networking and casual talks, the virtual format is difficult and less efficient in this respect. At our in-person meetings, for example, exhibition booths with big banners are placed in the hall, right next to the catering area. Participants have enough time to walk around and strike a spontaneous conversation with sponsors during the breaks. The virtual format, however, is different. Participants usually attend virtual conferences from their home, often juggling work and family duties. They are more selective about the kind of content they access and prefer to schedule their interactions.

At first glance, this focused approach to attending virtual conferences may not seem as beneficial for sponsors. At the same time, however, there are several ways in which virtual meetings can lend themselves well to providing opportunities for sponsors.

🌎 Wider reach

The number of participants at virtual conferences is normally much higher than at in-person meetings due to them being more affordable and more accessible. The sponsors’ brands could therefore reach wider and more diverse audiences.

💸 Lower cost

Similar to the registration fees, the cost of virtual sponsorship is lower. In addition, companies save on the usual costs associated with sponsoring or exhibiting at a conference such as travel and accommodation for staff, booth design and set-up and shipping. With all this budget left unused, companies have the opportunity to invest in producing content that is relevant and engaging for participants.

📣 More diverse advertising formats

Sponsoring a virtual conference also means making use of all digital content formats available in the virtual venue – banners, videos, flyers, white papers, polls and webinars can all be used to further engage with participants. Digital booths give participants the opportunity to access at the time that is suitable for them, browse material, chat with booth staff, or have a video call to quickly get the answer of a pressing question about the company’s products they are using.

🗓 Extended exposure of branded material

Participants are generally given access to our virtual venues for an average of 4 weeks. In this way, sponsors get extended exposure for their brands and products and have the option to follow up with participants after the end of the meeting is over.

📈 Campaign insights

Contrary to physical conferences, measuring the success of your marketing efforts and the ROI of your sponsorship is much easier at virtual meetings. The built-in tools of the virtual conference software we use provide valuable insights on the performance of your individual marketing campaigns and help you assess your approach in the future.

Virtual sponsorship is a relatively new concept and one that many companies are still hesitant about. With all of EMBL’s events staying virtual until the end of 2021 and the possibility of hosting hybrid events once we go back on-site, it is now clear that virtual sponsorship is here to stay. It is therefore important to understand that it not only offers opportunities for companies to reach their target audiences in times where face-to-face interaction is limited but it also helps them stay connected with the scientific community.

Interested in supporting an EMBL conference as a virtual sponsor? Get in touch with us at sponsorship@embl.de!

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